As a result, cattle with non-compliant characteristics continue to enter the beef supply chain covered by the TAC or G4 (Figure 10). The different laundry strategies for cattle destined for a compliant slaughterhouse are as follows: almost a decade after the initial implementation date of 2011 for monitoring deforestation by indirect suppliers, Processors are delaying the promised delivery of full supply chain traceability – in July 2020, Marfrig announced that it would be able to do so for all Amazon cattle by 2025 and cerrado. 42 Although the agreement remains a reference point (if only as a commitment of the companies themselves, without formal supervision, with the exception of the audits they themselves commissioned) and despite the proliferation of zero deforestation agreements between consumer companies and global traders, deforestation of beef appears to be continuing in Brazil: a study this year on land clearing by fire in the Brazilian Amazon region that the fires were three more common in areas that supply cattle. Slaughterhouses as elsewhere in the region. 43 As Greenpeace Brazil and other NGO surveys regularly show, large beef processors generally purchase animals raised or fattened by third-party producers whose activities and supply chains they do not examine (see pages 33, 42-43). Proof by Legal Land Title suppliers: they also committed not to buy cattle from operating farms – first from direct suppliers, but within two years to indirect suppliers – who have not been able to present maps with their limits and areas of use and their non-use or (after six months two years or five years) that were not registered. , there was no environmental approval or no legal property. In 2015, despite persistent sustainability issues in the indirect cattle supply chain, Alix-Garcia et al. demonstrated that G4 meat packers continued to acquire facilities in deforestation hotspots in Mato Grosso and Para after the signing of the G4 and TAC agreements. While the voluntary commitment of Brazil`s largest beef producers to the private sector has been a step forward, a separate agreement – the conditions for cattle adaptation can devote up to 75% of their lives to indirect supply of ranches. Since breeding in Brazil lasts up to 4 years, one year longer than in the United States or Canada, potential exposure to illegal practices is increasing.
As shown in Figure 9, Brazil`s cattle supply chain covers different sites, from birth to slaughter, resulting in varying degrees of transparency and visibility. For any direct supplier of a meat processor, indirect suppliers may also be involved. They could include several animal transactions between birth and slaughter. The main players in beef production are JBS, Minerva and Marfrig. These companies control about 70% of the slaughter capacity of cattle in the Amazon. JBS and Minerva also have slaughterhouses in the Matopiba region (Maranhéo, Tocantins, Piaua and Bahia), the agricultural border area of Cerrado. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian government implemented the “National Champions” initiative to transform companies into large multinationals. This action has enabled several Brazilian meat companies to become world leaders in the sector, which has also been made possible by a wave of international consolidation in the sector. Massive investments of public funds through the Brazilian development bank BNDES and its investment arm BNDESPar, notably at JBS, Marfrig and BRF, have supported these efforts. The GTA is not a faulty system. In areas with many small ranchers, traders collect cattle from different small ranchers.
This system may include producer animals that are not eligible for a GTA. In a region where a larger number of manufacturers offer than the facilities registered by the health inspectorate, intermediaries